Importance of OVN

Vitamins play crucial roles in both human and animal nutrition and the new concept of OVN is essential in this modern era of farming.

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Poultry Breeders

Animals selected for breeding purposes require specialized attention, precise management practices and a diet of high nutritional quality...

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Laying Hens

Commercial egg-laying strains have changed a great deal in a few years. Logically, these changes in themselves should call for increased nutritional requirements in general, and in particular, increased vitamin requirements...

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Broilers & Turkeys

Broiler and turkey diets need to be supplemented with vitamins as the primary materials do not contain them in sufficient quantities.

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Pigs

Most recommendations for vitamins in swine nutrition are based on studies carried out several decades ago. There are several reasons to suggest the need to update the guidelines and these are covered in this chapter focusing on swine nutrition...

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Beef Cattle

Recommendations for vitamin levels in beef herds has been completely reviewed in this chapter, with the purpose of supplying vitamin levels appropriate to this group of animals...

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Dairy Cattle

The increase in productive yield of the dairy cow has revealed a series of production problems which, in recent years, have enabled deficiencies of some vitamins to be identified. This chapter updates best practice.

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Author(s)

S. Calsamiglia
M. Rodríguez

Dept. of Animal and Food Science Animal Nutrition and Welfare Service Universidad Autònoma de Barcelona 08193-Bellaterra, Spain

OVN in Dairy Cattle

Introduction

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The development of the concepts of requirements and recommended amounts of vitamins has been limited by analytical difficulties and by the lack of response criteria sufficiently clear to allow recommendations to be established.

However, the increase in productive yield of the dairy cow has revealed a series of production problems which, in recent years, have enabled deficiencies of some vitamins to be identified, and recommended amounts of these vitamins for commercial conditions should be modified.

Vitamins are generally classified as fat-soluble and water-soluble. Watersoluble vitamins have traditionally been considered non-essential for ruminants, due to microbial synthesis in the rumen.

However, recent data suggest possible benefits from their supplementation. The National Research Council (NRC) in 2001 established new recommendations on optimum vitamin levels in dairy herds.

In most cases, the recommended levels were increased considerably from previous reports. This chapter discusses these new recommendations and their justification, and provides a critical evaluation based on the available scientific literature.

Contents: OVN in dairy cattle

Introduction
Vitamin A and the ß-carotenes
Vitamin E
Vitamin D
Vitamin K
Biotin (vitamin H or B8)
Folic acid (vitamin M or B9)
Niacin (vitamin B3)
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)
Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
Thiamine (vitamin B1)
Vitamin B12
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)
Vitamin C
Choline
Nutritional value of cow’s milk for human nutrition
Conclusions
References