Importance of OVN

Vitamins play crucial roles in both human and animal nutrition and the new concept of OVN is essential in this modern era of farming.

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Poultry Breeders

Animals selected for breeding purposes require specialized attention, precise management practices and a diet of high nutritional quality...

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Laying Hens

Commercial egg-laying strains have changed a great deal in a few years. Logically, these changes in themselves should call for increased nutritional requirements in general, and in particular, increased vitamin requirements...

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Broilers & Turkeys

Broiler and turkey diets need to be supplemented with vitamins as the primary materials do not contain them in sufficient quantities.

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Pigs

Most recommendations for vitamins in swine nutrition are based on studies carried out several decades ago. There are several reasons to suggest the need to update the guidelines and these are covered in this chapter focusing on swine nutrition...

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Beef Cattle

Recommendations for vitamin levels in beef herds has been completely reviewed in this chapter, with the purpose of supplying vitamin levels appropriate to this group of animals...

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Dairy Cattle

The increase in productive yield of the dairy cow has revealed a series of production problems which, in recent years, have enabled deficiencies of some vitamins to be identified. This chapter updates best practice.

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Author(s)

A. C. Barroeta
R. Davin
M.D. Baucells

Animal Nutrition and Welfare Service, Department of Animal and Food Science Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra. Spain

OVN in Laying Hens

Introduction

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Current commercial egg-laying strains have changed a great deal in a few years. Birds have changed in size, sexual maturity has advanced, feed consumption has decreased and, above all, egg production has improved in quantity and size.

Logically, these changes in themselves should call for increased nutritional requirements in general, and in particular, increased vitamin requirements.

This chapter is divided into sections on the different vitamins. For each vitamin there is a description of its role in the bird. Then there is a discussion of various studies in which differing vitamin levels are used, and of the effects on production parameters, egg quality, added value and/or well-being of the laying hen. It looks at the vitamin levels used in practice and the recommendations made by the different official agencies, genetics firms and additive companies. Lastly, it shows the average nutritional composition of eggs produced in the United States and in various countries of the European Union, including Spain.

This chapter reviews in detail the optimum vitamin requirements for laying hens.

Contents: OVN in laying hens

Introduction
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Vitamin B complex
Thiamine (vitamin B1)
Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12)
Niacin
Pantothenic acid
Folacin
Biotin
Choline
Vitamin C
Nutritional composition of eggs
Fortification
Vitamin requirements and recommendations for layers
References